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But just because of its completeness the Aristotelian system aroused much opposition in Western Christendom where scholars already had an equally comprehensive system based on the facts revealed in the Christian rational system explaining the universe as a religion. Moreover, some of were themselves For instance, he held Aristotle's theories directly contrary to Christian teaching. that the world was eternal and this obviously conflicted with the Christian conception of God as a creator. His opinions were doubly suspect because they reached the West accompanied by Arab commentaries which stressed their absolutely determinist character.

Change or 'becoming' was a process by which sensible likenesses of such eternal forms were produced in space and time. identity, 15 AUGUSTINE TO GALILEO bodies and of the other intermediate planets. Fire was the chief constituent of heavenly bodies. In Thierry's view fire vaporised some of the waters on the earth and raised them to form the firmament dividing the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament. This reduction in the waters covering the central sphere of earth led to the appear- ance of dry land.

The experimental and mathematical methods were them- more after for the selves the result of a definite theory of science, a theory postulating definite methods of investigation and explanation. Some indication of this theory of science will be necessary to make much of what follows in this chapter intelligible, were the medieval and many of the additions of fact results of its scientific application. method will A to fuller be reserved be described treatment of for Chapter V. Besides additions of fact, other important changes were made in the 13th-century scientific system as a result of criticism from a purely theoretical point of view.

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